Background info on the sun

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The surface viewed from Earth, called the photosphere , is the layer from which most of the radiation reaches us; the radiation from below is absorbed and reradiated, and the emission from overlying layers drops sharply, by about a factor of six every kilometres miles. The Sun is so far from Earth that this slightly fuzzy surface cannot be resolved, and so the limb the visible edge appears sharp.

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All the interesting planetary and interplanetary gravitational phenomena are negligible effects in comparison to the force exerted by the Sun. Under the force of gravity , the great mass of the Sun presses inward, and to keep the star from collapsing, the central pressure outward must be great enough to support its weight. The nuclei of atoms are completely stripped of their electrons , and at this high temperature they collide to produce the nuclear reactions that are responsible for generating the energy vital to life on Earth.

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While the temperature of the Sun drops from 15,, K at the centre to 5, K at the photosphere, a surprising reversal occurs above that point; the temperature drops to a minimum of 4, K, then begins to rise in the chromosphere , a layer about 7, kilometres high at a temperature of 8, K. During a total eclipse the chromosphere appears as a pink ring.

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Above the chromosphere is a dim, extended halo called the corona , which has a temperature of 1,, K and reaches far past the planets. The Sun is a very stable source of energy; its radiative output, called the solar constant , is 1. Superposed on this stable star, however, is an interesting year cycle of magnetic activity manifested by regions of transient strong magnetic fields called sunspots. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.

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Submit Feedback. Although the Sun has yet to formally comment on the claims, in an article on its own website the news outlet emphasised it had acted in line with standard journalism practice.

Outlets including MailOnline, the Mirror, and Metro. The claims come at an awkward time for the Sun, which is already facing a legal case from Prince Harry against its publisher, News Group Newspapers, for alleged phone hacking.

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It has also had to deal with a hefty pushback against its decision to investigate the family background of the England cricketer Ben Stokes. Public records show that Vardy has previously provided the Sun with articles. She previously sold a story to the News of the World in about her brief relationship with the singer Peter Andre, although she has since insisted she was coerced into doing so.

Coleen Rooney, like many celebrities with substantial online profiles, maintains a second secret Instagram account where she posts personal pictures and updates on her family life.

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This was set to private, so only people approved by Rooney could follow her and read updates — essentially creating a safe environment on the photo-sharing social network where she could share posts to a trusted group of acquaintances without the general public being able to see. Earlier this year Rooney publicly complained that the Sun was writing stories based on information she had posted to this private Instagram account — suggesting that one of these supposedly trusted acquaintances was passing information to the newspaper.

According to Rooney, she decided to root them out by posting fake updates about her life to see whether they ended up as articles in the Sun. When they did, she took advantage of an option that allows a user to limit the audience for an Instagram Stories update to a select group of users.

source url Rooney continued to share fake updates, some of which then ended up in the Sun, as she narrowed down the potential suspects. At this point only Rebekah Vardy was able to see the updates, prompting Rooney to post one final fake update which duly appeared as a story in the newspaper on Wednesday morning.